The Urban-Rural Differences of Height and the Living Standards at the beginning of Spanish Industrialization
- Referencia: Martínez-Carrión, J. M, Pérez-Castroviejo, P. M, Puche-Gil, J y Josep Maria Ramon-Muñoz: “The Urban-Rural Differences of Height and the Living Standards at the beginning of Spanish Industrialization”. 2023, Historia Social, 80, pp. 35-57.
ABSTRACT This paper examines the urban-rural differences in height during the early stages of Spanish industrialization. Its aim explore the extent of the urban penalty and welfare biological changes in cities compared to rural areas, which was more backward. We use data height of military recruitment records registered in replacement between 1857 and 1936, that provide information on the health and net nutrition of cohorts 1837-1915. It is note that previous studies reported higher penalty in rural areas than in cities, and that the height deteriorated in the most industrialized cities due to unhealthy environments, child labor and spread of infections. The new data shows that in some rural areas had better nutritional status than urban centers provided care resources well, so the rural-urban gap was more diverse than we thought, not only by environmental factors but institutional. It suggests further research on the geography in height by social classes