Essays on biological living standard, inequality and poverty in Spain: A long-term view

  • Autor: Begoña Candela Martínez
  • Director/es: José Miguel Martínez Carrión, Josep Maria Ramon Muñoz
  • Defensa: 26/5/2022 - Universidad de Murcia
  • Tribunal: Inmaculada López Ortiz, Javier Puche Gil, Manuel Lorca Jaña
  • Calificación: Sobresaliente cum laude
  • Ver publicaciones relacionadas

Resumen:

En la tesis doctoral se estudia el impacto de los procesos socioeconómicos y de las distintas coyunturas económicas en los niveles de vida biológicos a través de distintos contextos ambientales y grupos socioeconómicos. Una vez ya conocidas las tendencias y los ciclos de las estaturas se pretende verificar si un aumento de la desigualdad va asociado a contextos de menor crecimiento de la altura. La investigación ahonda en las relaciones entre la desigualdad y los diversos aspectos microeconómicos, tales como el capital humano. Asimismo, se abordan las relaciones dinámicas del ambiente geográfico influido por las variables climáticas con la evolución de la talla humana.

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Disponemos de las estadísticas (regionales) de reclutamiento y reemplazo de España a comienzos del siglo XX y, a escala local, de las actas de clasificación y declaración de soldados de tres municipios de la provincia de Santa Cruz de Tenerife. La muestra está compuesta por 15.645 quintos de Santa Cruz de la Palma (La Palma), La Orotava y Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Tenerife).Resultados: la talla masculina alcanza los valores más altos conocidos en España en el siglo XIX y registra un incremento de 2,86 cm entre las cohortes de 1860 y 1915. Se discuten los determinantes de la ventaja de la talla canaria. La dieta, la menor incidencia de enfermedades y un ambiente favorable para la salud debido a un clima benigno pudieron ser factores decisivos de la ventaja del estado nutricional en Canarias.Conclusiones: la talla media masculina de las Canarias occidentales se sitúa más cerca de los parámetros de la Europa occidental que de los de la España peninsular. Aunque eran relativamente pobres, los adolescentes canarios exhiben el mayor bienestar físico de España desde 1860 a 1915 y un patrón de bienestar biológico y nutricional similar al de la Europa desarrollada e industrial. [post_title] => Entre los más altos de España. El estado nutricional en las Canarias occidentales: cohortes masculinas de 1860-1915 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => entre-los-mas-altos-de-espana-el-estado-nutricional-en-las-canarias-occidentales-cohortes-masculinas-de-1860-1915 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2022-07-08 19:08:01 [post_modified_gmt] => 2022-07-08 17:08:01 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://doctoradodecide.com/?post_type=publicaciones&p=3460 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publicaciones [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [1] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 3458 [post_author] => 19 [post_date] => 2022-07-08 19:05:40 [post_date_gmt] => 2022-07-08 17:05:40 [post_content] => Abstract This article deals with the historical relationship between the number of siblings in a family or household and height, a proxy for biological living standards. Ideally, this relationship is better assessed when we have evidence on the exact number of siblings in a family from its constitution onwards. However, this generally requires applying family reconstitution techniques, which, unfortunately, is not always possible. In this latter case, scholars must generally settle for considering only particular benchmark years using population censuses, from which family and household structures are derived. These data are then linked to the height data for the young males of the family or household. Height data are generally obtained from military records. In this matching process, several decisions have to be taken, which, in turn, are determined by source availability and the number of available observations. Using data from late 19th-century Catalonia, we explore whether the methodology used in matching population censuses and military records as described above might affect the relationship between sibship size and biological living standards and, if so, to what extent. We conclude that, while contextual factors cannot be neglected, the methodological decisions made in the initial steps of research also play a role in assessing this relationship. [post_title] => Sibhsip size, height and cohort selection: a methodological approach [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => sibhsip-size-height-and-cohort-selection-a-methodological-approach [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2022-07-08 19:05:50 [post_modified_gmt] => 2022-07-08 17:05:50 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://doctoradodecide.com/?post_type=publicaciones&p=3458 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publicaciones [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [2] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 3456 [post_author] => 19 [post_date] => 2022-07-08 19:02:57 [post_date_gmt] => 2022-07-08 17:02:57 [post_content] => Abstract Introduction.- Season of birth correlates to a wide range of health conditions throughout life measured by anthropometrics. This study explores whether the month of birth and weather during gestation influence male adult height, based on Spain’s rural population before the end of the modernization process. Methods.- The database of heights (N = 16.266) is composed of conscripts who reached the age of 21 between 1908 and 1985 (birth cohorts 1886-1965). The population sample has been taken from a municipality in inner Spain: Hellín, in the region of Castilla-La Mancha, mainly an agrarian area, with poor resources and low income until the 1970s/1980s. Two different methodologies have been implemented: a harmonic regression using sinusoidal covariables and a random forest model. Results.- We find that being born at the end of the summer and during the autumn was favorable to height. The birth month with the highest statures is September, with heights 0.5 cm above the annual average and 0.9 cm above February, the birth month with the lowest average height. Furthermore, we can observe that rainfall and temperature during gestation had little additional influence due to a substitution effect with the birth month variable. Conclusions.- Our results suggest that the seasonal effects on height can be significant and that it can be partially affected by environmental factors during early life. Our findings could be of interest for low-income populations and developing rural societies. [post_title] => Month of birth and height. A case study in rural Spain [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => month-of-birth-and-height-a-case-study-in-rural-spain [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2022-07-08 19:03:09 [post_modified_gmt] => 2022-07-08 17:03:09 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://doctoradodecide.com/?post_type=publicaciones&p=3456 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publicaciones [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [3] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 3390 [post_author] => 19 [post_date] => 2022-05-27 11:03:10 [post_date_gmt] => 2022-05-27 09:03:10 [post_content] => Abstract Socioeconomic inequalities and their evolution in different historical contexts have been widely studied. However, some of their dimensions remain relatively unexplored, such as the role played by socioeconomic status in the trajectory of biological living standards, especially net nutritional status. The main objective of this article is to analyze whether the power of socioeconomic status (SES) to explain differences in the biological dimensions of human well-being (in this case, adult height, a reliable metric for health and nutritional status) has increased or diminished over time. Educational attainment and occupational category have been used as two different proxies for the SES of Spanish men and women born between 1940 and 1994, thus covering a historical period in Spain characterized by remarkable socioeconomic development and a marked increase in mean adult height. Our data is drawn from nine waves of the Spanish National Health Survey and the Spanish sample of two waves of the European Health Interview Survey (ENSE) for the period 1987 to 2017 (N = 73,699 citizens aged 23–47). A multivariate regression analysis has been conducted, showing that, as a whole, height differentials by educational attainment have diminished over time, whereas differences by occupational category of household heads have largely persisted. These results indicate the need for further qualification when describing the process of convergence in biological well-being indicators across social groups. For instance, the progressive enrollment of a greater proportion of the population into higher educational levels may lead us to underestimate the real differences between socioeconomic groups, while other proxies of SES still point to the persistence of such differences. [post_title] => Growing taller unequally? Adult height and socioeconomic status in Spain (Cohorts 1940–1994) [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => growing-taller-unequally-adult-height-and-socioeconomic-status-in-spain-cohorts-1940-1994 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2022-07-01 16:23:05 [post_modified_gmt] => 2022-07-01 14:23:05 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://doctoradodecide.com/?post_type=publicaciones&p=3390 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publicaciones [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [4] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 3380 [post_author] => 19 [post_date] => 2022-05-24 12:29:35 [post_date_gmt] => 2022-05-24 10:29:35 [post_content] => Abstract Developments in anthropometric history in the Iberian Peninsula have been remarkable in recent decades. In contrast, we barely know about the behavior of insular population groups and infants’ and adults’ growth during the nutritional transition in the Canary Islands. This paper analyzes the height, weight and body mass index of military recruits (conscripts) in a rural municipality from the eastern Canaries during the economic modernization process throughout the 20th century. The case study (municipality of San Bartolomé (SB) in Lanzarote, the island closest to the African continent) uses anthropometric data of military recruits from 1907–2001 (cohorts from 1886 to 1982). The final sample is composed of 1921 recruits’ records that were measured and weighed at the ages of 19–21 years old when adolescent growth had finished. The long-term anthropometric study is carried out using two approaches: a malnutrition and growth retardation approach and an inequality perspective. In the first one, we use the methodology recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) that is based on z-scores. In the second one, we implement several inequality dimensions such as the coefficient of variation (CV), percentiles and an analysis for height and BMI evolution by five socioeconomic categories. The data suggest that improvements in biological well-being were due to advances in nutrition since the 1960s. They show that infant nutrition is sensitively associated with economic growth and demographic and epidemiological changes. [post_title] => Biological Well-Being and Inequality in Canary Islands: Lanzarote (Cohorts 1886–1982) [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => biological-well-being-and-inequality-in-canary-islands-lanzarote-cohorts-1886-1982 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2022-07-01 16:23:05 [post_modified_gmt] => 2022-07-01 14:23:05 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://doctoradodecide.com/?post_type=publicaciones&p=3380 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publicaciones [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) ) [post_count] => 5 [current_post] => -1 [in_the_loop] => [post] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 3460 [post_author] => 19 [post_date] => 2022-07-08 19:07:52 [post_date_gmt] => 2022-07-08 17:07:52 [post_content] => Abstract Objetivo: analizamos la dinámica del estado nutricional en las Canarias con datos de la altura masculina durante la segunda mitad del siglo xix y su dimensión en el contexto español.Métodos: con datos del reclutamiento militar, hacemos una estimación de la talla promedio masculina en edades de 19-21 años por cohortes de nacimiento para el periodo 1860-1915. Disponemos de las estadísticas (regionales) de reclutamiento y reemplazo de España a comienzos del siglo XX y, a escala local, de las actas de clasificación y declaración de soldados de tres municipios de la provincia de Santa Cruz de Tenerife. La muestra está compuesta por 15.645 quintos de Santa Cruz de la Palma (La Palma), La Orotava y Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Tenerife).Resultados: la talla masculina alcanza los valores más altos conocidos en España en el siglo XIX y registra un incremento de 2,86 cm entre las cohortes de 1860 y 1915. Se discuten los determinantes de la ventaja de la talla canaria. La dieta, la menor incidencia de enfermedades y un ambiente favorable para la salud debido a un clima benigno pudieron ser factores decisivos de la ventaja del estado nutricional en Canarias.Conclusiones: la talla media masculina de las Canarias occidentales se sitúa más cerca de los parámetros de la Europa occidental que de los de la España peninsular. Aunque eran relativamente pobres, los adolescentes canarios exhiben el mayor bienestar físico de España desde 1860 a 1915 y un patrón de bienestar biológico y nutricional similar al de la Europa desarrollada e industrial. [post_title] => Entre los más altos de España. El estado nutricional en las Canarias occidentales: cohortes masculinas de 1860-1915 [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => entre-los-mas-altos-de-espana-el-estado-nutricional-en-las-canarias-occidentales-cohortes-masculinas-de-1860-1915 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2022-07-08 19:08:01 [post_modified_gmt] => 2022-07-08 17:08:01 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://doctoradodecide.com/?post_type=publicaciones&p=3460 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publicaciones [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [comment_count] => 0 [current_comment] => -1 [found_posts] => 5 [max_num_pages] => 1 [max_num_comment_pages] => 0 [is_single] => [is_preview] => [is_page] => [is_archive] => 1 [is_date] => [is_year] => [is_month] => [is_day] => [is_time] => [is_author] => [is_category] => [is_tag] => [is_tax] => [is_search] => [is_feed] => [is_comment_feed] => [is_trackback] => [is_home] => [is_404] => [is_comments_popup] => [is_paged] => [is_admin] => [is_attachment] => [is_singular] => [is_robots] => [is_posts_page] => [is_post_type_archive] => 1 [query_vars_hash:WP_Query:private] => 42139b8fc44e4983726adcd359061c4f [query_vars_changed:WP_Query:private] => [thumbnails_cached] => [stopwords:WP_Query:private] => )

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